Need for cows and young cattle in amino acids

Need for cows and young cattle in amino acids

The need for young cattle in amino acids

In growing calves for breeding flocks (heifer replacement) the goal is the next level of weight gain:

1-8 Life Week - 700-800 g / day;

9-12 Life Week - 750-900 g / day.

From 4 th to 7 th week of life comes the greatest consumption of whole milk substitute (milk).

animal lure prestarter for calves and high-quality hay to stimulate the development of the rumen function, which begins at the latest with the third week of life, significantly reduces the content of crude protein and essential amino acids in the overall diet. At the same time formed in the rumen microbial protein it takes an increasing share in covering the needs of animals in amino acids.

Smooth and individual transition from whole milk or milk replacer diet on ruminant makes it possible to use substitute milk of different quality and price category. The earlier the separation from WMS, the higher the requirements to the quality of the protein. In the first weeks of life of whole milk substitutes, which contain casein, is an advantage. On the 5 th week of life enough milk replacer, whose amino acid preferably derived from whey protein and soy. In general, whole milk replacers, which contain a fraction of skim milk powder, They should be supplemented with lysine and methionine in the synthetic form.

Fattening calves of average weight gain:

в 1-8 Time Life - 1200 г;

в 9-16 Time Life - 1400 г.

High weight gains are achieved by increasing the amount of permanent fed milk replacer and its concentration. In the second half of the watering period the products are often used with a high-fat and low-protein fraction and amino acids.

Table 1. Recommendations for amino acids calves (in milk replacer)

Cows need for amino acids

In contrast to the feeding of pigs and poultry, Cow calculations are still carried out on the crude protein or used in the duodenum crude protein (digestion of proteins, nXP). This is due mainly to the fact, that the process of digestion in ruminants characterized by a symbiosis between the host animal and a variety of microorganisms in the proventriculus, and so it is difficult to estimate the flow. This is partly due to the failed, What is known feed composition, the composition of microbial protein and protein composition of milk. The consequence of this is that, that in some countries, eg, in France and in the US, balancing rations for amino acids is a common practice.

essential amino acids.

Numerous scientific studies, the main limiting amino acids for dairy cows called lysine and methionine. The reasons for this are as follows:

  • Microbial protein in its amino acid composition is best satisfies the need cow. Most of the protein from feed raw material contains less methionine and lysine in relation to the total content of essential amino acids, than microbial protein. Lysine different lower intestinal digestibility, other than a non-cleavable amino acids in the rumen of feed protein (UDP).
  • The proportion of the total amount of lysine in the UDP essential amino acids is very often lower, than the same feed to rumen fermentation.

Methionine and lysine - is the essential amino acids in the microbial protein for cattle growing animals.

Methionine is particularly important for metabolism in the liver, regardless of cow productivity parameters, such as the milk yield or the milk protein content. One side, methionine used by veterinarians at such problems as the low consumption of feed or disturbances in fat metabolism. On the other hand, Through the addition of methionine can improve liver function.

Recommendations for cows amino acids

to ensure cows amino norms, compared with pigs and poultry, It is not so unambiguous. table 2 given amino acid requirements for cows, which are used in practice in France. Так, eg, cow with a live weight 650 kg and milk yield 30 kg (4% fat, 3,4% milk) in the small intestine is about the need for lysine 130 g and about the need for methionine 41 г.

Table 2. Cows need for amino acids

1)FCM: amount of milk based on 4% milk fat

2)PDI: digestibility in the small intestine protein

Stable amino acids in the rumen

Microbial protein has a high biological value due to its favorable amino acid composition. But still, especially for high yielding cows, formed in the microbial protein of methionine and lysine is insufficient for optimum performance cow. With the help of the methods available today drawing rations such deficit situation can be prevented. for example, by introducing into the diet in the rumen stable methionine and / or lysine is possible to meet requirements of animals in these amino acids. Due to this you can also increase the productivity of such indicators, the protein content in the milk produced or the amount of milk protein.

But the debate about the stable in the rumen amino acid is conducted not only in relation to the classic indicators of productivity. More importantly, that the addition of methionine can reduce the concentration of ketone bodies (beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone). Stable rumen methionine can make an important contribution to reducing ketoznoy perspective in the first third of lactation in high yielding animals.

Also feeding sheep have reported a positive effect of methionine. The amino acid profile of the protein coat is characterized particularly high proportion of sulfur-containing amino acids. Therefore, a stable rumen methionine particularly positive effect on hair growth.

Excess protein

protein, coming from the feed, cleaved in ruminants primarily in proventriculus, and liberated in this process, ammonia is used as a bacteria source of nitrogen in protein synthesis. When providing nitrogen from feed protein or nonprotein nitrogen compounds exceeds the capacity of protein synthesis in bacteria proventriculus, excess ammonia is synthesized in the liver into urea. Therefore, excess protein leads to stress. Stable rumen amino acids can from this point of view the need to intentionally close the animals in the individual amino acids, without, To increase the ammonia concentration in the rumen.

Additional Information:

protein metabolism in cows

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Major diseases of rabbits and their control

Major diseases of rabbits and their control

Prevention of diseases. Any disease is easier to prevent, than to liquidate. To prevent the disease of rabbits, you must strictly comply with simple rules.
Bought another farm rabbits first three weeks kept in a separate room. If after that time not one of them will be sick, bought the rabbits can be placed together with the other, but in different cells.
Besides the general cleaning and disinfection of premises thorough disinfection is carried out before cells kindling, before each transfer rabbits.
once every 10 days disinfect feeders, drinkers, nurseries and other equipment. The disinfecting solution should cover the entire surface, to penetrate into all the cracks.
Be sure to disinfect the cells and the appearance of the premises of an infectious disease. When carrying out disinfection should be considered, that different pathogens respond differently to disinfectants. Therefore, it is necessary to use the tool, detrimental effect on the specific pathogen. These means are indicated in the description of Infectious Diseases.
You can not disinfect the alkalis and acids, the metal parts of cells, as the metal on them corrodes. You can not disinfect acids cement floor. Metal parts of cells and equipment pour boiling water or burned by fire blowtorch.
cells, кормушки, drinkers clean, and if necessary, cleaned daily.
We must carefully inspect each animal before tupping, okrolom, after kindling, rabbits, on the second day after kindling, before jigging, further, every 10-15 days.
Healthy rabbit has a cheerful appearance, a good appetite, mobile, coat his brilliant, not disheveled, eyes and nose clean, the number of breaths at a moderate temperature of 50-60 air per minute, temperature from 38.5 to 39.5 bodies city., heart rate (pulse) - 120-160 per minute.
When animal diseases or in case of an urgent cause mortality veterinary specialist. animals, infected with ringworm, infectious coryza, mastitis and other infectious diseases, best just to score. This is the most effective measure to combat the spread of infection.
We can not allow, to the room, which contains rabbits, vodilis rodents: they spread infectious diseases. Often floors rabbits bite to death.
The room must be maintained clean air, avoiding drafts.

Non-contagious disease of origin. The most common diseases of rabbits are gastrointestinal. If rabbits 20-30 days of age do not have enough breast milk, they slowly start to eat roughage, designed for mothers. On the delicate mucous membranes of the digestive organs are formed wound, there is an inflammation of the stomach and intestines. The same disease can also occur in adult rabbits by eating low-quality forages, large amounts of legumes, with a dirty animal welfare.
Symptoms of the disease - the frequent selection of soft or liquid faeces, covered with slime, intestinal or gastric distention, otsutstvie ispražnenij. Often constipation is replaced by diarrhea. The general condition of the animal depressed, decreases, and then lost appetite. When swellings rabbit often die within 2-3 days.
Лечение. Rabbits 12-20 hours kept on a starvation diet, and then begin gradually to give fresh, soft food (best steamed feed mixed with boiled potatoes) and carry out the following treatment:
constipation are inside or 3-5 g of Glauber's salt or Carlsbad 1-1.5 teaspoon castor oil; triturated stomach 5 percent solution of edible salt (1 a teaspoon to a glass of water), put an enema of warm, slightly soapy water; let sick rabbit run. After the rabbit proslabit, he is given oatmeal broth, red carrots;
with bloating (timpanni) 5-8 are inside ml of a 10 percent solution ihtiola, gently rubbing the belly, uncage;
ponose- at 1-2 times a day are inside sintomitsina (by 0,1 г) and a decoction of oak bark (1-2 teaspoons). From succulent fodder yield only a small amount of carrots and herbs. Oats lightly toasted. Summer give some good, soft hay.
If the diarrhea appeared in rabbits, we must take one tablet sintomitsina (0,5 г), breed in 2 l lukewarm clean water and the solution was to solder the sick rabbits twice a day, pouring it into his mouth with two teaspoons (in the morning and in the evening). On the day the solution is poured into sintomitsina drinkers. Usually, on the second or third day of treatment is stopped diarrhea.
Quite frequent diseases, especially in overcrowded content of rabbits, with faults in the cells, injuries are, wounds, fractures. When minor injuries painful swelling of the injured spot usually disappears after a few days. With strong bruises, when broken skin integrity, formed wounds. Superficial wounds smeared with iodine, in this case the animal, usually, recovering. With deep wounds, particularly penetrating into the chest or abdominal cavity, rabbits often die. These rabbits should immediately score. The treatment is advantageously carried out, if the rabbit is very valuable.
After contact with the rabbit foot into the slot or under strong impact can be broken. Despite the fact that the rabbit with a broken can live long, treat it makes no sense economically.
If the damage of the spine treatment is useless, Rabbit need to score.
In extreme cold cells with poor insulation may rabbits ears frostbite. When the swelling rubbing frostbitten places, Rabbit transferred to a warm place. Then frosted parts lubricated with any internal melted fat.
Solar and thermal shocks occur from direct sunlight on hot days, and the body from overheating when the content in stuffy, unventilated areas, especially at high humidity. The rabbit is often breathe, mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, reddened eyelids, He pulled on his stomach or on his side and lay motionless. Very often, this results in death of the animal. But if that diseased animals to be moved to a cool place, put on his head soaked in cold water cloth, which is cooled in water every 4-5 minutes, rabbit mozheg recover. When convulsive twitches treated limbs useless, Rabbit need to quickly score.
The content of the rabbits in areas with drafts, rain leads to colds. Rabbit nasal stands clear or turbid liquid, rabbit sneezes. If you quickly eliminate the causes of the disease, Rabbit can recover. Sick rabbit was placed in a heat-insulated room, improve feeding, especially vitamin feed. Daily in each nostril instill 3-5 drops of 1 percent solution furatsilina (в 100 g of warm water diluted 1 d drugs) million penicillin solution, comprising 20 thousand. units in 1 мл. Animals considered to be cured, two weeks after the disappearance of signs of disease.
meat rabbits, recover from non-communicable diseases, used without restrictions.

infectious disease rabbits are caused by pathogens invisible to the naked eye or cutaneous, and dwell in the bodies of internal parasites.

The most dangerous disease krolikov-myxomatosis in rabbits. This acute disease flowing ends in most cases, death. He proceeds in two forms. When nodular form of the animal body there are tumor the size of a pea or slightly larger, the edematous form tumors coalesce into a continuous swelling.
Tumor-miksoty appear most frequently on the head (nose, bridge, mouth, eyelids, ears), paws, genital organs and the anus. Simultaneously, inflamed mucous membranes of the eyes. ears down, animal in the edematous form gets ugly view. After 5-10 days the animal dies.
The disease spreads rapidly, it is passed not only rabbits to each other, but also rodents, blood-sucking parasites. In case of illness it is necessary to immediately notify a veterinarian. All sick animals immediately slaughtered and burned along with the skin. Ill animals remain virus carriers, they infect healthy animals, so they also must be destroyed.
Places of detention and slaughter rabbits disinfect the 3-percent solution of sodium hydroxide or formaldehyde, 5-percent solution of Lysol or bleach. Rabbit manure is buried to a depth of not less than 1 m, breeder's clothes should be boiled for at least an hour.

Rhinitis-zarazny runny nose, or pasteurellosis. Sick and young, and adult rabbits.
evidence. Start or purulent mucus from the nose, rabbit sneezes, state of depression, the temperature rises to 41 city., sometimes there is diarrhea, on pads formed comb-over (hairs sticking pa inside of the forelegs from falling on them from the nose after).
Sick rabbits are isolated immediately, thoroughly disinfected cells 10-20 percent solution of bleach; you can burn the cage fire blowtorch. Pathogen die quickly, but in the manure it can be stored up to one month, the corpses of the fallen in the rabbits up to three months. Therefore, the manure from the cell and the body is required to burn.
Лечение. Every day in each nostril of the patient is administered a rabbit of 4-5 drops of a 1 percent solution of penicillin or furatsilina (в 1 мл 20 thousand. units), improve the conditions of feeding and housing.
In the absence of nasal secretion during 20 days Rabbits are considered healthy, but they remain carriers of the pathogen, which is excreted in the feces. Therefore rabbits after three weeks of recovery after a better score. animals, not recovered within 14 days, kill.
The meat had been ill rabbits, slaughtered after the 20-day exposure, It can be used in food. Affected parts of carcasses destroyed. Carcasses of dead animals is fed to other animals after boiling for an hour.

infectious stomatitis (wet snout). Ill mostly young in age of 20-90 days.
evidence. Redness of the mucous membrane of language, lips, nasal cavity, then at these places there is a white film, later ulcers and severe drooling. Moistened with saliva resulting in the mandible hair stick, the constant action of saliva skin becomes red and inflamed, at this point the hair falls out. Rabbits often die.
If treatment is started immediately after the detection of the disease, Rabbits recover in 2-3 days. For the treatment of the oral cavity of a rabbit 1-2 times a day lubricated 2 percent aqueous solution of copper sulfate. So easier to treat stomatitis: poltabletki white streptotsida crushed in a teaspoon and fill up sick rabbit in his mouth, 8-10 hours to give the second half of the tablet. it, usually, it is enough to treat.
If the disease is started, it is necessary to apply both of the above-described method, first lubricate the copper sulfate solution, then fill streptocid.
Sick rabbits given soft food, very useful to give 1-2 tablespoons yogurt.
Cell disinfected with boiling lye or working on fire blowtorch. You can disinfect the cage 1-2-percent solution of sodium hydroxide or formaldehyde.
The rabbit is considered to be healthy, if within two weeks he did not show signs of disease. The meat used in food without restrictions.
Infektsionnыy mastitis-zabolevanie lactating females, which occurs most often in the first half of lactation. When the disease becomes red and solidifies udder, which appear pustules and sores. To prevent the disease, Rabbits should be kept clean, on a soft cloth, regularly check, if there is enough milk in the mother, to rabbits did not bite and do not hurt the nipple. For the treatment of invited experts. Female with advanced disease better score. The meat of the slaughtered animal used in food is not recommended. After provarivaniya it can be fed to other animals.

coccidiosis caused by pathogens, are only killed at a temperature of 80-100 deg., chemical means it does not apply. Pathogens are excreted with the feces of the animal patient, They are in the life of the state up to six days. During this time, once in the digestive tract of a healthy animal, they cause disease. Ill mostly young in age of 1.5-4 months.
Symptoms of the disease. Rabbits lose their appetite, wilt, lose weight, appears pale mucous membranes, sometimes jaundice, often observed bloating and diarrhea. Often animals are killed, especially youngsters under the age of two months. With the opening of the patient animal severely impaired liver, thereon visible nodules size from millet grain to a pea.
Radical treatments for coccidiosis rabbits yet. This disease can be prevented, if the following rules: rabbit cells contain a slatted floor, which is not delayed cal; maintain cleanliness in the feeders; summer day, in winter you can in a day, thoroughly clean the cells from feces and uneaten food; periodically (once every 10 days) cells disinfected by boiling or scalding flame of a blowtorch; avoid contamination feces feed, Why feed set only in a manger; the room should always be dry; Drinkers should be regularly cleaned and replaced more frequently in their water; not to feed a large number of pulses, bran and acidic marsh grasses. These feeds create conditions in the body for rapid multiplication of coccidiosis pathogen.
Recover from coccidiosis rabbits are carriers of the pathogen, so these rabbits in the herd is better not to leave. The meat had been ill rabbits can be used in food.

Spirochaetosis-zabolevanie extends mating with patients Rabbit. The causative agent is stored with food, with podstilkoj. When the disease is genital male or female, often around the anus, appear redness and swelling, descendants of the expiry of the genital organs. Form bleeding ulcers.
The disease can last for several years and result in recovery. Overall condition hardly changes rabbits, but female patients have reduced fertility and birth of weak rabbits. To prevent the disease, before each tupping carefully examine the genitals of rabbits. Sick rabbit need to score. Meat used as an ordinary, the affected area is cut out and destroy.
For the treatment of invited experts. Cells were disinfected 1-2 percent solution of sodium hydroxide.

Scabies ticks, which the, hitting the skin of animals and humans, It can cause irritation and itching. In the rabbit mites are parasitic on the inner surface of the ear, the scalp, They feed on blood.
Symptoms of the disease. There are small skin wounds, redness, slight swelling, then there are small bubbles; the liquid flowing out of them wither, formed scabs. Sometimes mites get into the ear, causing complications. Rabbits lose their appetite, exhausted and perish.
Лечение. Corky plentifully moisten with turpentine; after they soak, they should be removed with tweezers, put in a jar and then burned. After 4-5 days, repeat the treatment. Immediately after the first treatment procedure disinfect the cage and equipment, washing with 5 percent solution creolin.
animal meat used without restrictions, skin within a month are stored separately from other, then use.
pediculosis appears when the dirty contents of rabbits. Rabbit louse parasite only in rabbits and hares. The most susceptible weakened rabbits.
Symptoms of the disease. At the site of the bite there are red dots, small swelling. Rabbit combing the affected areas to the blood, that withers, forming a crust; he loses appetite, lose weight. A careful examination of the skin visible small crawling insects.
To treat rabbit is taken out of the room in a box at a distance of not less than 40 m from the pasture or premises, where the cells are placed on rabbits, and rubbing the wool against rabbit body one of the following drugs:
DDT tobacco dust or leaf mashed with naphthalene in equal amounts. Shake off excess powder with rabbit stroking his hair.
After processing the rabbit was placed in a cage, thoroughly cleaned from manure. An hour stay rabbit in a cage it abundantly watered boiled water or hot ash lye.
The meat is used, as usual, skins and feathers are stored separately for a month.

The main thing to know that any problem prevention is better than cure. Site recommends that the entire package of measures for the prevention of diseases, despite the possible increase in costs. Remember, that the complex of treatment measures, usually it comes out more expensive than prevention.

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Когда начинать скармливать зерновые нового урожая?

Когда начинать скармливать зерновые нового урожая?

Many businesses have already collected winter barley, and ponder, when you can start to feed the new crop of pigs. Especially when a shortage of raw materials are inclined to farmers, to start to use fresh corn.

Often recommend the use of grain only after storage for at least four to six weeks, because they fear problems with digestion and reduced feed palatability. known, that the grain after the harvest for some time yet ripen, during which there is a high contamination of the surface of the grain. In the middle there is accumulation of water weevil, corn "sweats". Starch and protein goes through the "aging process". In consequence of this splitting of these nutrients is reduced, which has a positive effect on animal digestion.

In what extent does reduced feed palatability, No accurate research data. There is also no definitive guidance on the minimum time necessary freshly grain storage prior to its feeding, because the data could not be found on the conducted experiments on animals. One experience in pigs for fattening of the '70s with a fresh barley has not led to problems. In a new experience Bavarian Agricultural Service were fed fresh batch of dry barley and wheat piglets.

Health problems or recessions productivity has not been established. but the group, which is fed exclusively with fresh grain in the first three weeks, from the very beginning showed the complexity, therefore, the use of fresh corn in feeding piglets immediately after weaning is not recommended. For security the proportion of fresh grain (barley and wheat) according to the experimental station may be at most 50% (the younger piglets, the less). It really provided, that feed hygiene constantly monitors. It is generally believed, that the risks involved in the direct feeding is much lower with proper dry storage (maximally 14% humidity, temperature of maximum 14 ° with, Adequate ventilation and cleaning the harvest) or preservation acids. Through the action of the acid activity of enzymes or metabolic activity of bacteria and fungi in grain or Dirty, eg, rapidly decreases, thereby feeding fresh grain could be implemented immediately without any problems.

Digestive problems animals, which repeatedly have been obtained in practice it is likely to have been caused by inadequate storage and preservation, eg, as a consequence of the reheating ("Sweating" process), It begins when bacterial metabolism. If a farmer wants to avoid possible risks, it should be fed only dry grain in a few weeks, or at least dilute its quality grain harvest last. Canned corn acids can be used after only a few days. Possible downs in palatability due to degassing acid.



After the harvest in the first days and weeks in the grain ripening process takes place. This refers mainly colloidal processes, occurring in the grain. This releases water: corn "sweats". Sweating grain can also be found then, when it has a dry matter content was found, satisfying the storage requirements. Кроме того, when harvested and immediately after, enzyme activity in grains is very low and only later rises again.

In some types of grain maturation is characterized by greatly reduced the power of the embryo. Corn, which is in the process of "sweating", ill-suited for animal feed. Be reckoned with digestive disorders, who in t. no. lead to lower productivity.

especially the need of the individual animal species mentioned sensitivity to the "fresh grain" pigs and horses. First of all, feeding freshly rye leads to significant health disorders and reduced productivity. research, conducted on piglets weaned, fed freshly rye, and rye, which was kept for a long time, showed a distinct increase in microbial activity in the stomach and small intestine of animals when fed fresh rye (Bolduan et al., 1987). First of all, when fed a high proportion of fresh rye in compound feed diseases of the digestive tract and bone resorption susceptible young and weakened adult animals.

Due to a bad experience when fed fresh grain, better to start their application after 4 weeks of storage. If this is not possible, the proportion of fresh grain in compound feeds for different animal species should be limited to a maximum of 30% (cm. table 1). This restriction also applies for direct feeding of fresh grain.

Table 1. Guidelines for the maximum allowable number of different crops in feed or total diet (%)


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Снижение теплового стресса

Снижение теплового стресса

When the content of livestock in climate rooms they created, usually, through the use of technical equipment (forced ventilation, heating), according to the type of animals and their age. The climate in the area is likely to differ significantly from the weather conditions beyond those. If the weather conditions are extreme, needed additional methods, to protect the health and life of animals.

Especially at high ambient temperature,, associated with a high solar radiation and high humidity, the temperature in the animal houses can rise so, that it will threaten the lives of animals. Also in unheated premises extreme temperatures negatively affect animals. As a consequence of global climate change in our latitudes to reckon not only with the more frequent mild winters, but also with periods of extreme heat in summer. This leads to targeted actions, according to the requirements of the Animal Protection Act (paragraphs 1, 2), to protect the life and well-being of animals. These activities include the appropriate management, and the application of additional technical equipment.

foundation thermoregulation farm animals

Farm animals maintain their body temperature constant, If the thermal load does not exceed certain bounds. Thermoneutral zone considered animal's environment temperature, which does not require the expenditure of energy on thermoregulation. In this zone are the best climatic conditions for the health and productivity. The thermoneutral zone is also in the area of ​​thermal well-being. Thermoneutral zone specific for different animal species and varies with age, with the change ratio of the volume of the body: body surface area. In young thermoneutral zone it is in a higher temperature region as compared with older animals. In addition to the ambient temperature at thermoneutral zone also affect humidity and air velocity. Three factors are combined into the above complex termogidralny. The content of total air heat termed enthalpy and includes sensibelnuyu (perceived) and latent (escaped through evaporation, I do not feel) warmth.

Farm animals have thermoregulatory mechanisms to cases, when the ambient temperature goes beyond the thermoneutral zone. If the temperature is above thermoneutral zone, increases the heat output from the body, and reduced formation of heat. This they compensate by thermoregulatory behavior, when the animals are looking for shaded areas or cool surface. Body temperature can be reduced due to heat (conduction), movement of air (convection), radiation (radiation) and evaporation (evaporatsii). Conduction, convection and radiation are possible only if, when there is a temperature difference. Evaporatsiya effective and without temperature drop, but increasing the relative humidity is less effective and stops, when the air is saturated with moisture. Animals without sufficient formation of sweat evaporation is carried out from the body primarily through the mucosal nasopharyngeal. Due to the frequent respiratory mucosal surface tissue is dehydrated, which leads to an increased demand for water. Bird increases its area of ​​the body revealing wings and uses the entire body to the heat output.

If the body can not give produced during metabolism warmth, hyperthermia occurs with fever, the consequence of which could be cardiovascular collapse, damage to brain cells and heatstroke. animals, affected by heat reduces food intake and locomotor activity, and water consumption, in front of, increases. If it occurs in the body fluid deficit, there is skin turgor, eyeballs sink, Surface vessels less filled and death often occurs.

Monitoring the climate in the livestock premises


Observation of the indoor climate should be carried out and documented periodically, and in critical situations - each hour, also at night. To control you need to use mechanical ventilation, as well as an alarm. Similarly, follow the recommendations on the use of ventilation equipment. Particular attention should be paid to the inflow of fresh air, which should be evenly supplied to the animal room. Near must be serviceable generator, in the event of a power outage to ensure the work of forced ventilation.

By constantly monitoring the weather on specialized sites or receive storm warnings helps to take timely measures to prevent animal losses. It is necessary, when the outside temperature rises above 38 ° C or indicator enthalpy rises over 67 kJ / kg. Particularly vulnerable to birds and pigs in the final stage of fattening.

General measures for the prevention of heat stress

It is recommended to plan emergency response in critical situations, eg, failure of ventilation equipment or extreme weather conditions. This requires additional devices, such as mobile fans of various modifications. Next measure to prevent heat stress - reducing the density of animals on the premises from May to September, for example at the end of fattening partially fill the space.

Great influence on the indoor climate of the building structure itself has (thermal insulation of external walls and roofs, window area). Especially the area of ​​the roof greatly affects the heating of premises, if it is not isolated. If it is true, air supply must not take place in the space under the roof.

Screening of direct sunlight can be done by planting trees, as well as partial shading of open areas and windows (blinds).

Lowering the temperature in premises could be achieved by increasing the air. care must be taken, to air intake grilles are free from contamination (dust, leaves). Increasing the air speed in the animal finding leads to an increase in convection heat recovery and greatly reduces the heat. For this purpose, it is recommended to use special air duct or install additional fans. The air velocity in the area of ​​animal finding may be promoted with 0,3 m / s 1,3 m / s, and in extreme cases up to 2,5 m / s. at 1,3 m / cooling effect is 3,3 ° C, and when 2,5 m / s - 5,6 ° C.

Also room humidification roof, the room itself or the air helps to reduce the temperature of the air. For evaporation requires energy. It is taken from the heat sensibelnoy, which results in lowering the temperature. Part sensibelnoy temperature becomes latent temperature in this process, which means an increase in relative humidity, but the enthalpy remains constant. In spite of this it is important to control the rise in the relative humidity of the air, because at very high temperature (30 ° C) and a relative humidity of more 80% can occur extreme thermal load (heatstroke), when heat is terminated. Therefore, the enthalpy - is a suitable option for situation assessment.

Spraying water on site can be done in different ways depending on the type of floor covering. In stables without litter (concrete, slotted floor) this can occur by a hose or plumbing system with outlet openings or spray nozzles. The water may be directed to the floor or directly on animals. When spraying pressurized (pressure 50-80 bar and sprays with very small holes) cooling effect is from 8 to 10 ° C, without them - 4-5 ° C. In poultry houses and poultry wet litter must be avoided. Therefore, there can only supply air humidification (adiabatic cooling). Whereby the inducted air can be chilled to 3-5 ° C. Here, the inlet air is passed through the moist material with a very large surface area.

Cooling of inlet air is also possible using a so-called geothermal heat exchanger. This uses a temperature in the deeper layers of the ground, air of which is fed into the room through the pipes.

Losses due to thermal stress can be avoided thanks to the feeding and management. Reduced feeding the hot and the increase in the cooler times of the day (associated with the reduction of the dark phase) and uninterrupted provision of drinking water to help cool the. Surveillance of livestock and technical equipment in an emergency shall be constant (day and night).

On pasture for all animals should be able to hide in the shadows (thermoregulatory behavior). If there are no natural sources of shade (trees, bushes, building), We need to build artificial shelters.

Summarizing we can say, that the reduction of heat stress is, to reduce heat and increase the impact of heat due to various measures.

Special measures to reduce the heat stress
Heat stress in poultry

The symptoms of hyperthermia and its prevention methods are similar for different species of birds. Therefore, they are described in detail in section 5.1.1. (broilers and laying hens).

Heat stress in broilers and laying hens


All the bird begins to breathe through the beak, and the number of breaths may exceed 250 in a minute. To return the heat the animals stand with spread wings. Feed consumption is reduced, Water consumption increases. Raise the feeders in boilers is not recommended, because the animals do not always avoid food. If the temperature rises above 35 ° C at a humidity of more 75%, when the body temperature rises to 42 ° C., which leads to deaths. Dead animals are, distributed over the entire area. The naked skin on the head bluish, of the beak often follows a liquid or liquid feed porridge.

The air velocity at the end of fattening (live weight 1,5 kg) в 4,5 m³ / head per hour at high rates of enthalpy (>67 kJ / kg of air) It is insufficient. It should be increased to 6,75 cubic meters / head at a time (corresponds to 4,5 cu / a 1 kg body weight), if you can not reduce the density of animals in the house.

By increasing the air speed twice with 1,25 до 2,5 m / s cooling effect can also double. Air from the higher rate to be supplied only on the part of the room, that the animals had a choice. Well established air "soul" in the third of the floor space. Air velocity at a temperature of 26 to 35 ° C may be from 3 до 6 m / s, respectively,.

Humidification of the supply air should be administered before the expected high temperature. This will reduce the house temperature 3-5 ° C and at the same time binds the dust particles. But we need to keep an eye on the humidity of outside air, which should not exceed 50%. Humidification animals and litter should be avoided, relative humidity indoors should be below 80%. It also helps moisturizing uninsulated roof, especially if the air ventilation of the area served by it.

To avoid additional stress on animals, you need to take care of a particularly quiet caring for them. Positively acting cottages additional vitamin C in drinking water.

In poultry houses with a free ventilation (Louisiana) it is recommended to install additional portable ventilators, which include temperatures in excess of normal.

Heat stress in turkeys

The minimum air velocity in closed poultry houses in the summer should be at least 4,0 cubic meter / kg live weight for turkeys and a minimum 5,0 cubic meter / kg live weight for turkeys, in extreme climatic situations 5-6 or 6-7 m³ respectively. This can also be achieved by reducing the population density premises.

If the air is humidified, We need to ensure, the relative humidity does not rise more 70%.

Through raising feeders prior day's heat is reduced feed intake and thus unloaded metabolism. When the temperature in the evening and at night the animals are able to unlimited food consumption.

Avoiding trouble in the house makes it possible not to create a bird excess stress. During regular rounds to familiar birds employee, it stimulates the birds to stand, so that the heat accumulated beneath them was removed.

Heat stress in ducks

Minimum air velocity must be summer 4,5 m³ / kg body weight per hour, at the end of fattening it should be increased to three times. If this can not be achieved by means of ventilation, We need to reduce the density of animals in the room.

Humidification animals and litter should be avoided. If the house is already high levels of humidity, extra moisturizing it will be critical. If the relative humidity is over 70%, possibility of return of heat through the breathing becomes limited.

Restriction of food intake should be also possible, as described for turkeys. Especially important, that water was freely available at any time.

straw bedding should be done quietly and gently, We need to avoid a flock of birds in one place.

Heat stress in pigs


Pets weighing up to 30 kg can compensate for high ambient temperature. But heavier specimens at a temperature of over 28 ° C, begin to breathe heavily, drink more water and reduce food intake, that is, to show the first signs of heat stress. Especially with increasing fat thickness complicated heat output. The high density of animals at the end of fattening causes, that animals can lie only touching each other, which significantly limits the heat. This can be minimized, selling the heaviest animal in the first place. Most animals can give heat lying in a corner on the wet or possible other heat-absorbing surface. This requires a minimum area 1 quarter. of the head. If this is not ensured, it is necessary to take care of another method of cooling. The headquarter inseminated, as well as in the mother liquor in high temperature areas has a negative impact on fertility indicators.

moisturizing floor is especially recommended for pigs (hose, stationary water) or installing showers, which are included in time and can be used for a long time). Particularly effective water spray tiny droplets in the mist. For this purpose water supply low and middle pressure water unsuitable, because so drops are too large. But the high-pressure setting gives the ideal size droplets with low water. But in the room relative humidity should not exceed 80%.

Avoid heat stress and allow construction activities (thermal insulation of walls and roofs), corresponding air supply in a pigsty, and additional equipment for cooling the supply air by humidifying the air or deep tank.

Heat stress in cattle


Also cattle suffering from high temperature. Metabolism in the RNC forms a lot of heat, which arises from the activity of the rumen flora and formation of milk. Release of heat is limited due to the low volume ratios of the body to its surface area. Already at temperatures above 25 ° C feed consumption is reduced, and with it, milk production and weight gain. When the content of dairy cows and bulls at the end of fattening indoors necessarily sufficient to ensure animal drinking water and additional ventilation. It is also recommended to open the gate in the barns. When the content of the meadows animals use trees and other shelters as a source of shade. If animals are kept in the meadow is only partially, you need to take care of shelters, if there are no trees or buildings, forming a shadow. In the heat period it is also recommended to drive the animals in the barn at lunchtime.

Heat stress during transport of animals


Each transport leads to significant motor and mental stress animals, more aktivnomuenergeticheskomu metabolism, and therefore, an increased heat production. This is even more aggravated by the fact, that each teplovoj_stress_pri_transportirovketransporting precedes trapping or distilled. Therefore, these activities during the summer months should be conducted during the night. It is particularly important due to the very careful preparation ensure the most relaxing treatment of animals and the use of suitable equipment for reducing stress. Animals should not be fed before transport, but it required access to water. Depending on the expected temperature in the street and the duration of transport loading density should be reduced to 10-20%. Need to check, whether ventilation is working. If there is, you must open additional ventilation holes. It is particularly important at high temperature to go quickly and avoid stoppages.

car fan should be examined already at startup. It is important to, so that it can operate independently of the vehicle engine. Recommended availability of additional fans, which are cooled during transport download. In certain situations, it is recommended internally spraying pigs with water.

If the stop is loaded transport is inevitable, it must not stand in the sun. Additional ventilation before unloading, how it is organized in slaughterhouses for poultry, brings its positive effect. Also transport ride without stopping to avoid heat stress. But poor management at the slaughterhouse to the overcrowding of poultry can bring all of these measures is not.

If traffic gets stuck in traffic or an accident, the driver must contact your company or the police, to bring your car out of traffic jams and ensure traffic on the other road or overload animals.


Guidelines developed by a working group 1 (livestock) Veterinarians for Animal Protection, 2010 year, Germany. Responsible for the release of Dr. Bodo Bush, Professor Gerd Schlenker. Translation Elena Babenko, especially for

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Способы преодоления теплового стресса в разведении птицы

Способы преодоления теплового стресса в разведении птицы

High temperatures are a serious problem for all types of poultry.
Heat stress has a negative impact on the production of eggs, size of eggs, feed consumption,
growth rates, hatchability, as well as causing deaths of birds. Therefore we can not prevent the formation
the heat in the house, and high temperature, created by the birds should be kept
to a minimum.

This article describes, as heat stress affects the bird, and provides ways
reduce the impact of heat stress on poultry productivity.

As broilers respond to heat stress?

At high temperatures, the bird often changes behavior, which allows it to recover
heat balance. During the hottest periods of the birds to rest more. Some birds lean against
wall or pipe drinking system. At high temperatures, often air shortage. In it
while increased activity of muscles and, Consequently, It increases energy expenditure.
Lack of air usually occurs, when
temperature reaches 30oC.
broilers, as well as other poultry, difficult to tolerate a high temperature at high
relative humidity.
Deaths due to heat exhaustion occurs very often, especially in birds with more weight.


As the lack of air affects the pH or acid-alkaline balance of broilers?

Generally, the blood pH is controlled by the kidneys and lungs by various buffer systems, that
preventing rapid changes in pH. With an increase in respiration rate in broilers, exposed
heat stress, a reduction in carbon dioxide levels and occurs respiratory alkalosis
(elevated blood pH). Heat stress also reduces the level of potassium and other minerals in the
the body, changing the balance of the body electrolytes.

Does a decrease in feed intake during heat stress?

Upon the occurrence of hot period decreases food intake. This is part of the physiological adaptation
bird stress. Reduced feed intake flows into the reduction of the daily intake of nutrients
matter, which are responsible for growth. but, if the body receives a smaller amount of nutrient
matter, it means he spends less energy on digestion. In this way, although the pace is slowing
growth, Birds can now easily transfer heat. Studies show, that the number of surviving
broilers reduced, if increases feed intake during heat stress, especially during
the hot periods of the day.

How can I alleviate heat stress?

Several characteristics of the building, such as its location, amount of insulating material,
number of roof projections greatly influence the temperature inside the building. Location of the building must
be so, to be able to take advantage of prevailing winds and thus, to the sun
not shine directly into the building.
If during the construction of the building is not a set of isolation was carried out, this can be done later, what
It will help prevent the influence of the solar heat on the temperature inside the building.
Insulation will be useful and in the cold season, as it retains heat. The correct length
Roof projections also do not allow sunlight into the room. In buildings with isolated
ceilings ventilation system must be installed on the ceiling. Additional
ventilation system will also help to avoid problems with high humidity in winter.

Ventilation and Cooling

Proper ventilation is necessary to reduce the temperature in the house. Birds do not sweat and lose
heat through the respiratory tract, earrings, and areas without feathers under the wings. Increase circulation
Air helps birds get rid of excess temperature.
In poultry houses without automatic ventilation valve must be installed, to provide
maximum air flow. With proper ventilation air flow
It will be distributed in the center of the house, as it shown on the picture 1.


Drawing 1.

Nothing should prevent air flow.
In houses with shutters, located on the sides and tunnel fans to improve
ventilation, the height of the ventilation system valves and controls should be coordinated for the
amplification airflow (Drawing 2). There may be needed
fans to create air movement inside the building.

Drawing 2
For all the fans to be protective grille, so that the birds do not hit the fan, as well as
staff security.

• In houses with natural ventilation, make sure, that the intake valves are fully open and
the air flow does not block high grass, that grows near the poultry house. Mow the grass around
the house and make sure, that it is no more 15 cm in height within 15 meters from the house. branches
trees, that hang too low, should cut down.
• Remove transport, оборудование, garbage, which may reflect the heat in the poultry house. grass clippings
around the house will reflect a minimal amount of heat aviary, than the bare ground. Extend
projecting roof overhangs, if you want to avoid direct sunlight into the building. AT
houses with self-ventilated, clean the fan and make sure, the whole system
It is functioning properly. Make, that the fan belts well fixed and the fan blades
• Clean the air vents and check, the air vents are not obstructed.
• Set the thermostat so the ventilation system, to all the fans worked continuously on
During the hottest periods of the day.
• The ventilation system must be operated throughout the night. Room cooling at night
It helps the birds easier to endure the heat of the day.
• If you do not have fans, set them. Make, that the protective grille guard
fan is in good condition. Before installing the fan, check, will
electricity system to support additional load.
• Blanch the ceiling or color reflective paint, especially in the non-insulated poultry houses. This
procedure will help reflect heat, but it is not effective to cool the building. use
the following solution: 9 kg slaked lime per 19 l of water 1 l polyvinyl.
• If the wrong roof insulation, use the system for spraying the roof. Make, what
the system is installed correctly. Check the amount of, to determine whether the lack of water for drinking and birds
roof spray. In the first place should be enough water for drinking.
When the cellular content of the following, staplivalsya to avoid droppings of birds in cages.
Litter impedes air flow and forms a further heat from the natural
the decomposition process.
Cooling by evaporation

Cooling by evaporation can significantly help the bird to move heat. limiting factor
System - is an external humidity, since the evaporation rate determines its effectiveness. AT
by evaporation cooling system using hot air to evaporate water. This increases
relative humidity, but reduces the temperature of the air. The most effective system
air-conditioning - a system, wherein the entire fresh air passes through the wet panel
cooling. When properly designed, system will reduce the air temperature to 11 degrees.
for example, at 38 ° C and 30 % relative humidity air can be cooled to 27 ° C. The system can
It is used in areas of high humidity, since the humidity levels are reduced to very low
levels during most of the hottest periods of the day.

Another type of air conditioning system is a misting system. The system uses high
pressure to create a fine mist inside the building. studies show, that blurred
may increase the efficiency of the ventilation system 50%. Here it is necessary to monitor, that
litter becoming too wet.


Feeding and watering

The drinking system
It is important to provide the necessary amount of water birds during hot periods. Expansion
Drinking front bird floor maintenance and increase in the number of drinkers will help increase
water consumption. Should be considered, that the birds will not drink warm water so willingly, as


• Increase the front watering especially for parents and broilers. Fill the fresh water in the drinkers
the hot periods of the day, to the birds was a sufficient amount of cool drinking water.
• Increase the feed rate and the amount of water in the drinking systems.
• If the drinking system has a filter, it should be clean and not to impede the movement of the water.
• Flush closed the drinking system. Water in plastic pipes in closed systems the drinking
rapidly reaches the temperature around the tubes.

Increased water intake during heat stress will increase the ratio of the surviving birds. Many
researchers attribute the increased survival rate of birds, who received additional salt such as potassium bicarbonate, potassium chloride, sodium chloride, chloride
ammonium, increased water consumption, instead of salts.
How useful hungry exposure during heat stress?

feed intake should also be given attention during hot periods. Typically, feed intake
declines and the birds can not get enough nutrients, necessary for
growth and produce performance indicators at the desired level. Often, manufacturers are trying to
stimulate feed intake during hot periods, however this can backfire.
Excessive food intake will increase the bird's body temperature and, perhaps, lead to more
case. Hungry exposure during the hottest periods reduces the thermal load and increases the percentage of
survival. Golodnaya extract reduces the production of heat through digestion, absorption and metabolism
nutrients. When the bird movement involves the work of muscles, that generates additional
heat. In a hot environment, this heat production only increase the heat load. Следовательно, that
reduce the heat load of poultry must be kept alone. It is necessary to stop feeding, if
temperature exceeds 32 ° C. Feeding can be stopped, closing the trough or raising them. make
it is necessary as soon as possible, to the gastrointestinal tract was empty by the time, when
house temperature reaches 32 ° C. Birds should not be fed until, temperature drops below
32° C night. However, this technology should not be used continuously, since growth rates are
reduced. Technology should be used only in emergency situations.

t2_img3 (1)

Heat stress reduces feed intake in broilers, a, Consequently, and the amount of nutrients
matter. therefore, feed formulation should be changed, Considering that, that the feed intake will
reduced. It would be wrong to increase the concentration of only protein. It should also be increased
energy diet, as well as, other nutrients. It is also important to increase the concentration of the fatty
acids and recalculate the concentration of vitamins and minerals. The use of vitamin C, as
antistressovogo preparation, it is often important during heat stress.
It is also very important to choose the right kotsidiostatik, an antioxidant and a mold inhibitor for feed,
stored in a warehouse. Not carbohydrates or fats, and promote the production of larger proteins
metabolic heat. Следовательно, unbalanced diets lead to increased
metabolic heat production. The balance of amino acids is very important in the diet. At this time should be
develop diets with slightly lower protein levels and apply large quantities
synthetic amino acids, especially methionine, lysine and threonine.

Remove other sources of stress

• Reduce stocking density of birds
• Do not disturb the birds during hot periods.
• Do not debikiruyte bird, while the temperature is not below.
• Birds should move as little as possible.


poultry in a comfortable environment for it is essential during hot periods.
Broilers under heat stress exposed to severe physiological changes. decreases
feed intake and increased water consumption, therefore necessary correction of the diet, which
reduce metabolic heat production and keep the intake of nutrients at the appropriate
Ensure good ventilation and use of water in the required amount.
Reducing the activity of the birds during hot days will reduce the thermal load. Controlled
hungry exposure often helps to increase the survival rate of birds during heat stress.
Good care of the bird and prepare the house, correct feeding and watering program
help to minimize deaths and stress, caused by high temperatures.

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Изменение потребностей птицы в обменной энергии в жару

Изменение потребностей птицы в обменной энергии в жару

Непременное требование промышленного птицеводства – создание оптимального микроклимата внутри производственных помещений.

И если обеспечение птицы теплом, светом, свежим воздухом – практически решенный вопрос, то поддержание необходимой температуры в жаркий период года остается проблематичным. Когда на улице летом 40 °С и выше, существующая система приточно-вытяжной вентиляции не способна понизить температуру в птичнике, во внутриклеточных пространствах.

Существует несколько технологических приемов снижения температуры внутри корпусов. Для этого красят известью крыши или поливают их водой, орошают территорию вокруг и внутри помещений, switching to night type of feeding. This enables only to some extent reduce the negative effect of high temperature.


Экстремальные условия в регионах с жарким климатом существенно нарушают у птицы обмен веществ, особенно водно-электролитный, а также обмен белков, жиров, углеводов и витаминов. Длительное воздействие избыточного тепла изменяет функции органов пищеварения, угнетая секреторную и моторно-эвакуаторную деятельность желудка, reducing the excretion of pancreatic and intestinal juice. Due to lower production of insulin in the blood sugar for a long time at a high level, what, in its turn, тормозит деятельность центров голода в коре головного мозга цыплят.

В условиях теплового стресса бройлеры резко снижают потребление корма, практически оставаясь голодными, много пьют. Naturally, reduced weight gain, which negatively affects the economy of the whole production.

To study the possibility of reducing the negative impact of high summer temperatures on the productive qualities of broilers at the poultry farm "October" we conducted an experiment. В жаркий период года (июнь – август) сформировали по принципу аналогов три группы суточных цыплят, которых равномерно разместили в трех ярусах клеточной батареи КБУ-3.

В рационе для всех трех групп содержалось одинаковое количество сырого протеина. В корме подопытных цыплят из первой группы был дефицит обменной энергии (ОЭ). Вторая (контрольная) group received the recommended norm. Ration third group contained excess energy.

In the second growing period (29-55 days) the level of crude protein in all three groups was 19,2 %, metabolizable energy – 300, 315 и 330 ккал соответственно.

Полученные результаты показали, что при повышении в рационе уровня обменной энергии уже к 28 дням живая масса бройлеров увеличилась на 3,8-4,7 %, к концу откорма – на 4,29 % по сравнению с нормативным уровнем.

При пониженном уровне ОЭ на 5,5-1,5 % в первой группе живая масса в 28-дневном возрасте уменьшилась на 2,89 %, в конце откорма – на 3,51 % по сравнению с живой массой контрольной группы.

Различия в питательности рационов не повлияли существенно на отход цыплят. Сохранность за весь период выращивания была практически одинаковой – 96 %. Увеличение скорости роста в третьей группе обусловлено тем, that energy-rich feed used in broilers body more efficient at the same actually reducing their consumption and consumption per unit of increase on 3,2 %.

Следовательно, для цыплят энергетическая насыщенность рациона – важный элемент в процессе повышения эффективности использования протеина корма и превращения его в белок тушки. Механизм азотосберегающего эффекта жиров заключается в поставке энергии для образования и жизнедеятельности внутриклеточных структур (АТФ). При их дефиците клетки для пополнения своих энергетических затрат вынуждены более интенсивно использовать аминокислоты, которые должны были идти на образование белковой ткани организма.

Additional introduction of fat in the diet allows for more efficient use of the feed protein and provides intensive live weight gain of chickens.

Conclusion. Анализ полученных данных позволяет сделать вывод о целесообразности увеличения в летний период года уровня обменной энергии в рационах цыплят-бройлеров. This will allow to neutralize the negative impact of high temperatures on poultry productivity, eliminate downtime of production space, максимально использовать их для круглогодичного производства мяса в условиях жаркого климата юга России.

Автор: О. Нигоев, доктор сельскохозяйственных наук, Director of the poultry farm "October", Republic of Adygea.

fountainhead: "Poultry farming magazine. Poultry Farm »№3, 2011 г.

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Экструдированное зерно – польза от использования

Экструдированное зерно – польза от использования

Feed composition greatly affects the ability of piglets during the weaning from the sow to digest food. The use of extruded cereals in this sensitive phase of the animal acting on them supportive. These grains are digested better, and promote intestinal health, said Dr. Haynrih Klyayne Klausing from Dusseldorf.

After weaning from the sow comes to asking for decisive change in the composition of food: from the "liquid feeding" the sow's milk, characterized vysokoperevarimym protein, fat and lactose, Power, consisting, first of all, starch from cereals and vegetable protein. Simultaneously changing the activity of various digestive enzymes, first and foremost activity is important for the digestion of amylase starch (cm. schedule "Production of enzymes after weaning").


By the time otlucheniya activity has amilazы, chymotrypsin and lipase short term decreases from one quarter to one fifth. Two weeks after weaning the concentration of lipase everything is also low, chymotrypsin and amylase activity returned only to 70 и 74 percent respectively of their activity at the time of weaning, respectively. This situation should be taken into account in the composition of compound feed for pigs and selection of raw materials for them.

To corn starch at significantly limited amylase activity could be digested by enzymes in the small intestine preferably, it is possible to "open" cereal starch feed before feeding through intensive technical processing. With this and related "productivity effect" and increased feed intake due to better its digestibility. Кроме того, so it prevented from being excessively large amount of undigested starch in the large bowel. Allowing the development of potentially dangerous E. coli significantly reduced, as well as the risk of diarrhea.

Technology to "open up" the starch

For the processing of grain in order to "open up" the starch in practice use different technologies. The thermal method (eg, infrared radiation, processing with hot air) It is to use these factors influence, the temperature and duration of exposure. In the hydrothermal method, (eg, toasting) additionally used moisture. The combination of hydrothermal processes (factors of influence: temperature, moisture, exposure duration) machined (the impact of factors: pressure and shearing force) represents ekstrudatsii technology.

ekstrudatsii principle is explained by the notion of. The verb "to extrude" comes from Latin and means "squeeze, push ". The material is crushed in the extruder channel, depending on the device type by means of one or two shafts of different configurations shnekopodobnyh (one- or twin shaft extruder) in translational motion and forced through small holes at the final channel. Thus a high pressure is created in the extruder channel as a function of device (possible to 100 have). Once the product leaves the extruder, there is a sudden pressure reduction and expansion of the extruded material. Due to the action of pressure and shear forces, -specific heat generated during the process and the effect of expansion of the material significantly changes the structure and characteristic achieved, visually definable texture.

High temperatures may occur during such processing, the material up to 200 ° C, although the duration is very short (few seconds). Because of this, such a process was ekstrudatsii abbreviation "HTST" (high temperature, short time).

The next difference is in the conditioning material prior to extrusion and introducing water under pressure. At the "wet ekstrudatsii" with the water flow and pressure through the air conditioner - Equipment for moisturizing (до 30% moisture in the material) obligatory drying mother after ekstrudatsii.

This processing step, very costly in energy, and hence the cost, still it was not widespread in the technology ekstrudatsii with production of raw materials for animal feeding.

Decisive known extrusion technology development has been the emergence of so-called technology opticon®. This technology allows to achieve targeting intensive changes similar structure as "wet" extrusion process described above. But thanks to the new concept is not needed energy-consuming drying of the processed material - in the end you just cool products. This technology allows to change the ratio of various grains in the end product and, in this way, save on storage extruded grains of different types separately in the feed mill or at the agricultural enterprise.

The destruction of the molecular structure

Для того, to understand, how the "disclosure of starch" in the grain, We need to look at its morphology and chemical structure. Grains contain depending on the type of 40 до 60 percent starch. Chemically pure starch can be divided on the amylose and amylopectin.

Amiloza (from 20 до 30% total starch in cereals) It composed of glucose molecules linked, that these compounds form long chains spiral winding.

Amilopektin (from 70 до 80% starch) - a branched polysaccharide, wherein the bound from 2 000 до 200 000 glucose molecules.

The ratio of amylose to amylopectin, chain length and degree of branching of the glucose chains significantly affect the technical properties of different types of cereal and the starch digestibility.

The endosperm starch grains is in the form of individual pellets, whose value ranges from 2 to 200μm. These starch grains are very easily distinguishable under the electron microscope (1000-fold increase) (cm. photo bottom left). They are fairly stable due to internal hydrogen bonds.

Branched molecular chains of amylopectin can produce these granules in place with unbranched amylose molecules semicrystalline and crystalline regions. These rigid structures are not split organic in water and natural, neizmelchonnoy form have considerable resistance to cleavage by enzymes.

Due to intense mechanical-hydrothermally treated cereal these structures change to the molecular level, starch "disclosed". The main effect - a significant increase of the surface area of ​​starch granules and extensive cleavage of amylose and amylopectin. Changing the structure is also very well seen under the microscope. Typical starch grains after processing and are destroyed for the most part are fused into flat, resembling melted plastic habitats (cm. Photo below right).


Feeding pigs is very important, that along with the size and shape of the starch grains could vary their internal structure (crystal, amorphous, jelly-like area) and a view of grain - wheat, barley and maize. Here, everything has a greater influence processing of grain after harvest.

Since research in the field of cereal show, that in maize grains during drying changes the starch structure. corn, due to a much higher percentage of moisture in the grain at harvest compared to wheat and barley, It has to be dried more intensively. Starch because of this becomes even worse properties for digestion by the action of enzymes. it, along with other, is the cause, why raw cornstarch poorly digested by young piglets, compared, eg, with raw starch from wheat. Следовательно, technical "disclosure" plays an important role in particular to increase the digestibility of corn starch.

Stable digestion in the small intestine

The degree of modification of starch by hydrothermal treatment under pressure can be determined by the so-called amyloglucosidase (AMG-метод) laboratory LUFA Nord-West as the "degree of starch disclosure".

But, by LUFA information, to keep in mind, that certain indicators can be compared directly with each other only in the framework of the same kind of grain.

For quality assurance in the production of extruded cereal products were tested in accordance with the established standard for the degree of starch disclosure of AMG method. For use in the feeding of pigs types of grain, which lend themselves well to the disclosure, You should have a degree of opening 70%.

Cleavage rigid structures in starch granules by intense exposure to hydrothermal pressure provides a significant improvement in physically properties of the product to absorb water, and hence the ability to swell.

This can be seen on the corresponding pictures. The beaker was left to stir certain amount of raw cereal mixture with water. Unprocessed grain flours are very clearly visible. Compared with this the right glass of water was mixed with the same amount extruded cereal mixture with an appropriate amount of water. The extruded granule is completely absorbed the water, formed a homogeneous feed porridge.


For digestion it has significant advantages. Because of extruded feed grain better absorbs the gastric juice, homogeneously mixed and provides uniform prokislenie - is an important prerequisite for a stable digestion in the small intestine.

A feeding piglets rearing method with liquid extruded cereal positively ensure homogeneity aft porridge in pipelines and in the trough. Feed lot worse stratified and settles in a manger.

Extruded cereal may have a positive impact on the palatability of feed and increased feed consumption of pigs. Part of the disclosed starch already in the jaws of piglets cleaved saliva amylase to maltose (maltose sugar). Due to this there is a natural sweet taste, which has a positive effect on palatability and feed intake.

Furthermore, piglets with limited activity of amylase possible to reach increase starch digestibility in the small intestine. It is very quickly released glucose, which is absorbed directly through the intestinal wall and is available at the disposal of metabolism.

This is a significant improvement in the starch to glucose by the cleavage can be measured by a special laboratory method "in vitro". Так, eg, mixture of cereal, consisting in the 50% wheat, 25% corn and 25% barley was investigated before and after the above-described method ekstrudatsii opticon®. The extruded mixture after one hour is 90% starch were digested to glucose, in the non-extruded mixture - only 60% (cm. schedule "Extruded cereal split faster").


Since the residence time of the feed porridge in the small intestine is less than one hour, and then enters the ileum, only when fed a mixture of untreated grain compound feed for piglets large amount of overcooked starch misses the ileum. This leads to the potential for the development of pathogenic bacteria, such as E. coli, сальмонелла, but also of pathogenic organisms, specific to the ileum, Lawsonia intracellularis, since starch is a breeding ground for them. Intensive disclosure of cereal starch in the mixture and their partial introduction in feed for piglets can significantly influence the maintenance of a stable and healthy work ileum.

As already mentioned above, to optimize the digestion of starch in the small intestine along with the inclusion in the formulation extruded wheat must produce the same hydrothermal treatment under pressure introduced into the part of the formulation maize. But we need to remember about the extruded barley. Так, experiments, conducted in Spain and other European countries, show, when administered in feed for piglets extruded barley can be significantly improved weight gain as the, and feed conversion. The reason for this is, that can be observed intensive conditioning fiber fraction at a hydrothermal treatment under pressure except for the improved starch digestibility in the front part of the small intestine. Whereby these structural carbohydrates from barley are better broken down and its ability to bind water rises. This factor in the subsequent positive effect on manure consistency.


Productivity and health of piglets can significantly support through the use of breast-feed, taking into account the ability of animals to digest. "The disclosed cereal" occupy the central position, and is now not only the raw material for prestarters, but also increasingly and successfully used in feeding pigs rearing.

When the extruded cereals in feed for pigs must be considered not only one kind of grain, because the combination of extruded wheat, corn and barley provide additional benefits for digestion, productivity and health of piglets.

Due to technical installations available today can be extruded to produce a mixture of these three types of grain by hydrothermal "opening" pressure.

High levels of starch splitting (on average higher 70%) such mixtures and their proportional use in various kinds of animal feed for pigs - between 40 и 20% depending on the feed phase (cm. table "So confused with extruded grains") - the digestion of starch will be very targeted use in the front intestine. In addition to the related "productivity effect" due to better digestibility and increased feed consumption in the ileum and colon gets less undigested starch. This eliminates a major source of food for the pathogenic microflora, such as E.Coli, thereby further achieved by reducing the risk of diarrhea in piglets.

Редакция сайта благодарит за данную статью сайт в лице Елены Бабенко.

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